• Publications
  • Case Studies

EEI is a research and development oriented consulting and engineering firm.

Our team members collaborate with various universities and R&D institutions in many countries and publish papers in journals and technical magazines. The selected list of publications by EEI team is provided in this section.

S Ghosh, Stegmann R, Wong J, Jing-Yuan W, Agamuthu P, Muffat J C, Dey, P.K, Kurup R (Eds), 2012 Sustainable Waste Management Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural

Oxford Publishing House, Kolkatta, ISBN: 81-86862 463 - Vol 1 & 8186862 74 1- Vol II

Dr Raj Kurup, Dr Anne Barnes, Dr Nick Costa, 2011 Review of the effects of water quality on ruminant health and productivity

ISBN: 9781741917079, Meat & Livestock Australia

Book / Technical Report

Nathan Cocks and Raj Kurup, 2010 Sustainability assessment tool for water treatment technologies in rural communities

Water, November, 2010, pp 94-100, Australian Water Association

Peer Reviewed Journal Paper

Dr Raj Kurup and Dr Biji Kurup , 2009 Engineering Sustainability Concepts in Industrial Pollution Abatement Projects

The Environmental Engineer, Vol 9 (4) and 10(1), 10 – 13, Society for Sustainability and Environmental Engineering (SSEE), Engineers Australia, Canberra

Reviewed Conference Paper

Dr Raj Kurup, 2008 Constructed Wetlands for High Strength Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Removal

ISBN: 9783639017748, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller


Rajendra G Kurup, 2008 Synthesis and application of a product for phosphorus removal from wastewater and polluted water bodies

IP Australia, AU-A-2008100116, awarded (3/04/2008).

Australian Patent

Dr Raj Kurup (Editor), 2007 Engineering Sustainability, Proceedings of the SSEE International Conference on Engineering Sustainability

Society of Sustainability and Environmental Engineering (SSEE), Engineers Australia, Perth, Western Australia

Conference Proceedings

Dr Raj Kurup, 2005 Expo 2005 Aichi Japan – A showcase of Sustainability

The Environmental Engineer, Vol 6(3), 12-14. SSEE, Engineers Australia, Canberra

Technical Paper

Kurup R., S. Dutta and V. Ramana. , 1994 Construction of Biogas Plants, A Technical Manual

TERI Press, New Delhi



Nutrient and Irrigation Management Plan (NIMP)


Irrigation is one of the most efficient and sustainable methods for the disposal of treated wastewater within the premise. In Western Australia, the permit to irrigate treated wastewater is given by the Department of Environment Regulation (DER). To acquire the necessary permit, a nutrient and irrigation management plan (NIMP) is required to be submitted and approved by the DER. The purpose of an NIMP is to provide justification of the irrigation regime to ensure that minimal to no environmental impact will occur to the site’s surrounding.  

The Problem

Currently most environmental consulting firm uses the recommended nutrient loading mentioned in the Water Quality Protection Note (WQPN) #22 as the basis of the NIMP. This approach is taken to minimise the time consumed to prepare the NIMP and it is the current industry standard. However, the result of this approach often leads to unnecessary large irrigation area requirement which is often not available at the site and limits future opportunities for the applicants.

EEI’s Approach

Upon reviewing the WQPN #22 document, we understand that the recommended nutrient loading rate is applicable to be used if there is insufficient information regarding the wastewater quality and quantity and the site. Given that sufficient information is available, modelling of the movement of irrigated water and the fate of the constituents can become the basis of the NIMP. EEI took this approach and have developed a specialist model which can calculate the minimum irrigation area required based on the irrigation scheme and characteristic of the underlying soil. If irrigation area is limited or there is a target irrigation area, the model can calculate the required treated wastewater quality which is suitable for the target irrigation area. EEI has applied this model to develop our NIMP and to review other firms’ NIMP. The NIMP developed using this model and the review of other firms’ NIMP has been accepted by the DER.

Case Studies

Vernon Arms Tavern, Baldivis WA

Vernon Arms Tavern has an onsite wastewater treatment system to treat the wastewater produced from the brewery. The water is treated to the conditions as required by the DER to be classified as a Class A+ water. To dispose the treated wastewater, Vernon Arms Tavern has been instructed by the DER to develop an NIMP. Initially, they engage another consulting firm to develop the NIMP. However, the recommendation for the NIMP suggests that an area of 8,000 m2 is required. The implication of the NIMP means that the land that has been planned for future development is no longer available as it will be required by the irrigation. The Tavern engaged EEI to explores the options that can reduce the required irrigation area. Through our model, we suggested that by reducing the phosphorus concentration from the wastewater, the irrigation area required can be reduced to 2,000 m2. The revised NIMP was submitted to DER and accepted. The result means that the development of the tavern can go as planned.


Environmental Engineers International Pty Ltd (EEI) has been serving Dardanup Butchering Company (DBC) https://tastedardanup.com.au/ in Picton, Western Australia as their long term partner for dealing with environmental management issues since 2002.


DBC is a third generation abattoir and small goods processing plant, established in 1950, in Picton, near Bunbury in Western Australia. In 2002, DBC was planning to increase the throughput, which would result in about 450 m3/d of wastewater, which required a new treatment plant. EEI was engaged by DBC on an ongoing basis to undertake the environmental management for the business. The partnership between EEI and DBC has enabled DBC to achieve its environmental goals consistently and secure a good relationship with the regulators and the neighbouring community, achieving the social license to operate.

Since 2002, EEI has undertaken the following major projects for DBC:

  1. A wastewater management plan
  2. Nutrient and irrigation management plan
  3. Environmental management plan
  4. Cleaner production and energy efficiency opportunity plan
  5. Design of a novel high rate anaerobic reactor
  6. Design of ANRUP system for nitrogen removal
  7. EPCM for the new wastewater treatment plant
  8. Implementation of real-time, online remote monitoring of treatment plant
  9. Improved phosphorus removal through both biological and chemical process
  10. Upgrade of nitrogen removal system using the Anammox technology
  11. Research collaboration with Meat & Livestock Australia for modular biogas covering system for the anaerobic reactor
  12. Innovative sludge management system
  13. Decommissioning of the redundant wastewater treatment ponds
  14. Ongoing support for DBC including for real-time environmental asset management, representation to the regulators.


The long term service agreement between DBC and EEI has provided sustainable high-quality benefits for the environmental management of DBC. High-level expertise of very experienced engineers has been made available to DBC by EEI. This has enabled DBC to focus on their core activities, whilst EEI has ensured that the treated water quality exceeds the regulatory requirement.

EEI’s long term involvement achieved zero requirements of chemicals for achieving over 90% removal of total nitrogen (from a high strength of ~ 420 mg/L of the influent) using the Anammox process – so far no meat processing plant has implemented this process in the world).

PROJECT: Wastewater management system for the Mount Barker Free-range Chicken Processing Plant

Environmental Engineers International Pty Ltd (EEI) was appointed by Mount Barker Chicken (MBC) (http://www.mtbarkerchicken.com.au/), the largest free range chicken processing plant in Western Australia to provide solutions for their air and water pollution problems in 2006.


MBC operated a processing plant with a throughput of 3200 tonnes per year of dressed chicken in 2005. This plant generated 60 to 80 m3/d of wastewater. The existing treatment plant consisted of an anaerobic lagoon, followed by a series of aerobic lagoons and a holding lagoon. The BOD, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) values in the treated effluent were very high and apart from the BOD, the N and P remained untreated in the pond system, causing groundwater pollution. The anaerobic lagoon did not have a crust for controlling odour, typically found in anaerobic systems. MBC had tried to provide an artificial crust by adding bird feathers. However, addition of bird feathers did not result in a floating crust, but increased the BOD leaving the anaerobic lagoon instead. The odour emanating from the pond was very strong (odour index of >8) which resulted in neighbours complaining to the regulators to shut down the plant and the issue of an Environmental Protection Notice to address odour issues in 20 days and ongoing air, water soil and pollution problems in 90 days by the regulator. 

Odour Control

EEI provided a quick fix solution to cease odour generation as a temporary step. The recommended solution to raise the pH of the pond system lowered the odour issues immediately, which resulted in support of the local community and the regulators. Within 45 days, EEI designed and installed an artificial floating biofilter system using straw that was placed on the anaerobic lagoon to oxidise the odorous gases.


Boilers and cooling towers are commonly used for industrial purposes. In order to maintain the efficiency of the boilers, from time to time, the water inside the boilers needs to be disposed. This water is commonly known as blowdown water. Due to the characteristic of the water, the discharge of the blowdown water is regulated, especially when the water is disposed to the environment.

Similarly, wastewater is also produced from the operation of cooling towers. Chemicals such as anti-corrosion chemicals and biocides are often added as part of the operation. These chemicals are often found in the wastewater and can be harmful to the environment. Therefore, the disposal of the wastewater is regulated by the relevant authorities.  For example, in Western Australia, the disposal of the wastewater produced from cooling towers is controlled by the Water Quality Protection Note (WQPN) #99.

The Problem

In an ideal condition, the water used in a boiler should be pure water where it does not contain any substances and gases dissolved in the water. The availability of impurities in the water will cause a reduction in efficiency of the equipment and the life expectancy due to corrosion. However, in reality, raw water used for boilers is far from the ideal condition. The raw water often contains hardness, oxygen and other impurities which would result in scale formation and corrosion inside the boilers. To avoid this, chemicals are often added to adjust the characteristics of the water to make it more suitable for the boiler operation.

Although this adjustment is beneficial for the boilers, the accumulated “conditioning” chemicals will now be available in the blowdown water, making it more harmful to the environment. The condition will be worsened in an unoptimised boilers operation, where the “conditioning” chemicals are added in excess.

In the case where there is no access to the sewerage system, these wastewater needs to be disposed with other means, such as environmental disposal. However, to meet the environmental disposal condition, the wastewater will require treatment prior to disposal.

EEI’s Approach

For this situation, most consulting firms approach the problem by looking for options for treating the produced wastewater. Based on EEI’s experience, we understand that in some cases, the most effective method to solve this problem is by avoiding the creation of the problem. Instead of analysing the problem downstream, EEI analyses the problem upstream by analysing the operation of the boilers. Through this analysis, changes to the operation of the boilers can be made which allow a cleaner production of blowdown water, hence requiring minimal to no treatment before environmental disposal.

Case Studies

RMAX Options Assessment for the Disposal of Wastewater Produced from Boilers and Cooling Tower

RMAX operates boilers and cooling towers as part of their manufacturing activities. Due to the unavailability of access to the sewerage network, the wastewater produced from the boilers and cooling towers are required to dispose through other ways. Under the existing wastewater quality, the wastewater must be treated prior to environmental disposal or it needs to be captured and disposed through third-party services. This decision was made based on analysing the constituents of concern available in the wastewater. However, based on the analysis of the constituents of concern, EEI has identified potential improvement to the operation of the boilers. Through the changes, it is predicted that a significant improvement in the wastewater can be achieved, thus allowing safe environmental disposal.